Black Africans’ race and ethnicity in the United States

According to researchers, a single integrated question for race and ethnicity in the decennial census would give a more accurate picture of how people self-identify. The 2020 Census used the required two separate questions to collect information on the racial and ethnic makeup of the American population [1-3].
The White population remained to be the largest racial or ethnic group in the United States with 204.3 million people who only identified as White. The Some Other Race population increased by 129% when compared to the Black population (41.8 million). African Americans were the largest race in the 2020 Census, both individually and collectively, with 46.9 million people [4-6].
The overall White population shrank by 8.6% between 2010 and 2020, while the Hispanic or Latino population grew by 18.7%. The total population of American Indians and Alaska Natives has grown by 160 percent since 2010. The combined membership of the two groups reached 9.7 million in 2020, an increase from 5.2 million in 2019 [7-9].
The population of Asia alone is expected to grow by 35.5% between 2010 and 2020. More over half of individuals who identified as more than one race were native Hawaiians and residents of other Pacific Island nations. Hispanic or Latino individuals made up almost all of those with the sole designation of Some Other Race (26.2 million out of 27.9 million, or 93.9%) [10, 11].
White individuals (aged 18 and over) made up only a smaller share of the population, falling from 74.7 percent in 2010 to 64.1% in 2020. Between 2010 and 2020, there will be an increase of 567% in the proportion of Hispanic or Latino people who identify as more than one race. We are certain that the modifications made to the two separate questions for race and ethnicity played a substantial role in these changes in racial distributions [12-14].
[1] A. Covarrubias and V. Vélez, “Critical race quantitative intersectionality: An anti-racist research paradigm that refuses to “let the numbers speak for themselves”,” in Handbook of critical race theory in education: Routledge, 2013, pp. 290-306.
[2] N. Masuoka, Multiracial identity and racial politics in the United States. Oxford University Press, 2017.
[3] M. C. Waters and K. Eschbach, “Immigration and ethnic and racial inequality in the United States,” Annual review of sociology, pp. 419-446, 1995.
[4] V. L. Roger et al., “Heart disease and stroke statistics—2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. e18-e209, 2011.
[5] K. Moser, K. M. Stanfield, and D. A. Leon, “Birthweight and gestational age by ethnic group, England and Wales 2005: introducing new data on births,” Health Stat Q, vol. 39, no. 39, pp. 22-31, 2008.
[6] H. Young, E. Grundy, and S. Kalogirou, “Who cares? Geographic variation in unpaid caregiving in England and Wales: evidence from the 2001 Census,” Population trends, vol. 120, pp. 23-34, 2005.
[7]  K. N. Kamarck, “Diversity, inclusion, and equal opportunity in the armed services: Background and issues for congress,” 2019: LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC.
[8] S. Bernstein et al., “Descriptive Data on Region XI Head Start Children and Families: AIAN FACES Fall 2019 Data Tables and Study Design. OPRE Report 2021-28,” Administration for Children & Families, 2021.
[9] R. E. Waggie, “Risk information seeking and processing of beef producers in the Southeast United States,” 2020.
[10] S. Johnson, A changing nation: Population projections under alternative immigration scenarios. US Department of Commerce, US Census Bureau, 2020.
[11] S. Aud, M. A. Fox, and A. KewalRamani, “Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups,” 2010.
[12] N. P. Gordon and M. C. Hornbrook, “Differences in access to and preferences for using patient portals and other eHealth technologies based on race, ethnicity, and age: a database and survey study of seniors in a large health plan,” Journal of medical Internet research, vol. 18, no. 3, p. e5105, 2016.
[13] S. M. Smith, R. Edwards, and H. C. Duong, “Unemployment rises in 2020, as the country battles the COVID-19 pandemic,” Monthly Lab. Rev., vol. 144, p. 1, 2021.
[14] C. F. P. Outbreak—Orange, “Trends in Quit Attempts Among Adult Cigarette Smokers—United States, 2001–2013,” 2015.

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