Education in the US is still segregated and unequal

These students enter widely different education environments.
In comparison to other nations, the United States spends 39% more on education for each full-time student. The number of Hispanic students enrolled in public schools is predicted to increase by 33% from 2011 to 2022. Due to variables including lower income, poorer health, and parents with less education, blacks do not have the same access to educational opportunities as whites [1-3].
Black children do less well in the development of skills such as matching, early counting, arithmetic, color awareness, numbers, and shapes, as well as receptive and expressive language. Compared to black children, white children are less likely to attend a subpar childcare facility. It has been shown that a child’s academic performance is significantly impacted by caring environments [4-6].
Retention rates peak in the ninth grade, where 34% of black students are kept. Black students are suspended and expelled three times more frequently than white pupils. Compared to white students, who make up 48% of those receiving an out-of-school suspension, black students make up 42% of those. Law enforcement reports and arrests of black students are increasing [7-9].
According to data acquired by the U.S. Department of Education, white principals made up 80% of the public school leadership. Children of color are less likely to live in households where at least one parent has a steady job than children of white or Hispanic heritage. For every 10% increase in students of color in a school, per-pupil expenditure is reduced by $75 [10, 11].
In 2012, the rate of child maltreatment, which includes abuse and neglect, was 14.2 per 1,000 black children compared to 8 per 1,000 white children. All-age victims of violent crimes are more likely to be black kids, who also have higher rates of obesity, drug addiction, and self-inflicted violence. Compared to white students, more black high school students report being sexually assaulted [12, 13].
Black students are less likely to graduate from high school (16% of black students drop out compared to 8% of white students), and in the 2006 freshman class at a four-year college, just 20% of black students finished after four years compared to more than 40% of white students. Black students are less likely than white students to graduate, and those who do take longer to do so [14-16].
By their fourth year of college, 90% of black students had received a federal, non-federal, or PLUS loan, compared to 65% of white students. Because they have significantly lower endowments, historically black colleges and universities are more vulnerable to downturns in the economy. According to a recent survey, black college graduates had a substantially higher jobless rate than white grads [17-19].
Generally, Black students are expelled from school at a rate three times higher than that of white students. Black students have a lower graduation rate and lengthier completion times. Every 10% rise in the number of students of color in a school results in a reduction of $75 per child. Economic downturns are more likely to affect colleges and universities with historically black student populations. Black college graduates had a significantly higher jobless rate than white grads.
[1] B. Hussar et al., “The Condition of Education 2020. NCES 2020-144,” National Center for Education Statistics, 2020.
[2] R. G. Fryer, “Teacher incentives and student achievement: Evidence from New York City public schools,” Journal of Labor Economics, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 373-407, 2013.
[3] T. D. Snyder, “Mobile Digest of Education Statistics, 2017. NCES 2018-138,” National Center for Education Statistics, 2018.
[4] O. A. Barbarin et al., “Parental conceptions of school readiness: Relation to ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and children’s skills,” Early education and development, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 671-701, 2008.
[5] A. Lewis Presser, M. Clements, H. Ginsburg, and B. Ertle, “Big math for little kids: The effectiveness of a preschool and kindergarten mathematics curriculum,” Early education and development, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 399-426, 2015.
[6] S. L. Kagan, E. K. Moore, and S. Bredekamp, Reconsidering children’s early development and learning: Toward common views and vocabulary (no. 3). National Education Goals Panel, 1995.
[7] D. J. Losen and T. E. Martinez, “Out of school and off track: The overuse of suspensions in American middle and high schools,” 2013.
[8] R. J. Skiba and M. K. Rausch, “Zero tolerance, suspension, and expulsion: Questions of equity and effectiveness,” in Handbook of classroom management: Routledge, 2013, pp. 1073-1100.
[9] T. Johnson, J. E. Boyden, and W. J. Pittz, “Racial Profiling and Punishment in US Public Schools: How Zero Tolerance Policies and High Stakes Testing Subvert Academic Excellence and Racial Equity. Research Report [and] Executive Summary,” 2001.
[10] T. E. Deal and K. D. Peterson, The principal’s role in shaping school culture. US Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 1990.
[11] B. Means, C. Padilla, A. DeBarger, and M. Bakia, “Implementing data-informed decision making in schools: Teacher access, supports and use,” US Department of Education, 2009.
[12] B. D. Smith, E. S. Kay, and T. D. Pressley, “Child maltreatment in rural southern counties: Another perspective on race, poverty and child welfare,” Child abuse & neglect, vol. 80, pp. 52-61, 2018.
[13] E. Putnam-Hornstein, B. Needell, B. King, and M. Johnson-Motoyama, “Racial and ethnic disparities: A population-based examination of risk factors for involvement with child protective services,” Child abuse & neglect, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 33-46, 2013.
[14] A. Nora, E. Barlow, and G. Crisp, “Student persistence and degree attainment beyond the first year in college,” College student retention: Formula for student success, vol. 3, pp. 129-153, 2005.
[15] M. M. Kim and C. F. Conrad, “The impact of historically Black colleges and universities on the academic success of African-American students,” Research in Higher Education, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 399-427, 2006.
[16] E. M. Allensworth and J. Q. Easton, “What Matters for Staying On-Track and Graduating in Chicago Public High Schools: A Close Look at Course Grades, Failures, and Attendance in the Freshman Year. Research Report,” Consortium on Chicago School Research, 2007.
[17] D. A. Santiago and S. Brown, “Federal Policy and Latinos in Higher Education,” Pew Hispanic Center, 2004.
[18] R. Wilkinson, Aiding students, buying students: Financial aid in America. Vanderbilt University Press, 2005.
[19] A. H. Cooley, “Promissory education: Reforming the federal student loan counseling process to promote informed access and to reduce student debt burdens,” Conn. L. Rev., vol. 46, p. 119, 2013.

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